Andrew Ward, Ph.D.

Andrew Ward studies membrane proteins expressed on the surface of enveloped viruses that mediate viral entry into the cell by recognizing cell surface receptors and initiating endocytosis or membrane fusion.  Recently, broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting these surface spikes have been shown to provide protection against viral infection.  The Ward laboratory works to understand how these antibodies bind to and neutralize viruses.  Using single particle electron microscopy and electron tomography they are able to visualize these complexes and whole viruses, providing information about the mechanism of inhibition and aiding in the design of better immunogens for eliciting a broadly neutralizing antibody response in humans.